Peace River Forage Association
Research and Development Projects

Ungulate Mitigation Strategies

Prevention & Control Handbooks
Created by University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Frightening Devices & Repellants

Efficacy of Animal Activated Frightening Devices - research paper discussing how ineffective frightening devices are in the long run on elk and deer.

Evaluating Electronic Frightening Devices on Deer - paper discussing eventual habituation to frightening devices over time. A good short term mitigation strategy.

Testing Potential Unguate Repellents - research evaluating different repellent strategies to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions.

Ungulate Foraging & Migratory Behaviour

Behavioral Approaches for Limiting Depredation by Wild Ungulates - strategies to reduce damage to agricultural resources like standing crops or stored feed.

Elk Forage Utilization on Seasonal Ranges - short description of what elk are eating and how much that overlaps with cattle.

Elk Migratory Behaviour - research paper describing effects of predators and other factors on elk migration behaviour.

Elk Versus Livestock Forage Utilization - preliminary results of a study monitoring interactions of wildlife and livestock on rangelands.

Perceptions of Utah Alfalfa Growers About Wildlife Damage to Their Hay Crops - discussion of importance of producer perceptions and implementation of compensation programs.

Summer Forage and Feeding Site Selection by Elk - study to understand behaviour of elk in regards to forage utilization.

Effect of Cattle Grazing on Native Ungulates - article by the Society of Range Management showing the positive and negative impacts of cattle grazing on wildlife.

Wild Ungulate Depredation on Winter Wheat: Effects on Grain Yield - shows that ungulate utilization of this crop did not significantly affect it's yield.

Birth Control (Not available in Canada)

GonaCon - Birth Control for Deer - An option developed for deer control in the states.

GonaCon Q & A

Review of Issues Concerning the Use of Reproductive Inhibitors, with Particular Emphasis on Resolving Human-Wildlife Conflicts in North America - looks at the use of reproductive inhibitors that are currently in use/under development in the US.

US Wildlife Contraceptives - summary of the different contraceptive options used on wildlife in the US.

Project Contacts:

Sandra Burton 250 789 6885 or email:

Talon Gauthier 250 219 3944
or email:

Julie Robinson 250 262 7576
or email: